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Wednesday, October 26, 2011

HIV/AIDS Among African Americans | HIV Statistics |

HIV Statistics - HIV/AIDS Among African Americans
HIV Facts that Help Track the Epidemic

HIV statistics tell the story of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. For African Americans in the United States, the HIV/AIDS epidemic is rapidly becoming a health crisis. AIDS data shows that in 2002, HIV/AIDS was among the top 3 causes of death for African American men aged 25 to 54 years and among the top 4 causes of death for African American women aged 25 to 54 years. Back then it was the number 1 cause of death for African American women aged 25 to 34 years. The HIV statistics are quite sobering. HIV/AIDS among African Americans is becoming a desparate problem. Here are some HIV facts to prove we have a lot of work to do.

What is the Incidence of HIV Among Gay Black Men?

HIV Facts and Statistics
Here are some facts about HIV among the African American Community.

According to the 2000 census, African Americans make up 12.3 percent of the US population. However, African Americans accounted for 50 percent of the new HIV cases in the 35 US states with confidential name-based HIV reporting.
New HIV Cases - 38,730
New Cases that Are African American - 19,206

      Name Based Reporting - Good or Bad?

During the period between 2001 to 2004, the rate of HIV/AIDS diagnoses for African Americans decreased, although the rate for African Americans was still the highest rate for all racial and ethnic groups.
The primary mode of HIV transmission among African American men was sexual contact with other men, followed by heterosexual contact and injection drug use.

      Who Are Men on the "Down Low"?
The primary mode of HIV transmission among African American women was heterosexual contact, followed by injection drug use.
Of the estimated 145 infants infected with HIV by their HIV positive mothers, 73 percent were African American.

      Preventing HIV Transmission from Mother to Child

Of the estimated 18,849 people under the age of 25 whose diagnosis of HIV/AIDS was made between 2001 and 2004 61 percent were African American.

      INterview with a Teen - How Does HIV Affect Them

Of the estimated 80,187 African Americans whose diagnosis of HIV/AIDS was made during 2001 and 2004 62 percent were males, and 38 percent were females.

      HIV Resources for Women

AIDS Facts and Statistics
Here are some facts about HIV among the African American Community.
African Americans accounted for 49 percent of the 42,514 estimated AIDS cases diagnosed in the United States (including US dependencies, possessions, and associated nations.

      What is AIDS and What Causes It?

The rate of AIDS diagnoses for African American adults and adolescents was 10 times the rate for whites and almost 3 times the rate for Hispanics. The rate of AIDS diagnoses for African American women was 23 times the rate for white women. The rate of AIDS diagnoses for African American men was 8 times the rate for white men.

      Are HIV and AIDS the Same Thing?

      HIV and AIDS Among Hispanics

The 178,233 African Americans living with AIDS in the United States accounted for 43 percent of all people in the United States living with AIDS.
Of the 48 US children (younger than 13 years of age) who had a new AIDS diagnosis, 29 were African American.
Since the beginning of the epidemic, African Americans have accounted for 40 percent of the estimated 944,306 AIDS cases diagnosed.
From the beginning of the epidemic through December 2004, an estimated 201,045 African Americans with AIDS died.

      Planning for the Future

Of persons whose diagnosis of AIDS had been made since 1996, a smaller proportion of African Americans (64 percent) were alive after 9 years compared with American Indians and Alaska Natives (65 percent), Hispanics (72 percent), whites (74 percent), and Asians and Pacific Islanders (81 percent).

Source: Centers for Disease Control, "Fact Sheet: HIV/AIDS Among African Americans", 1 Feb 2006.

MSM Statistics. How is HIV Affecting Men Who Have Sex With Men?

Quick HIV Facts - MSM Statistics
How is HIV Affecting Men Who Have Sex With Men?

In the United States, HIV and AIDS have taken a heavy toll among men who have sex with men (MSM). MSM make up a considerable portion of the HIV population at least in the western world. What is the state of HIV among MSM?

What Activities Present the Highest HIV Risk?


AIDS has been diagnosed for more than half a million MSM.
Almost 300,000 MSM with AIDS have died during the past 20 years. In the 35 areas with long-term, confidential name-based HIV reporting, 70 percent of all HIV infections (in men, women, and children) diagnosed during 2004 were men and 50 percent of those were MSM.

      Should HIV Reporting Be Name-Based?

Risk Factors
It's a proven fact that MSM are at high risk for HIV infection. The main ways MSM get HIV are by

having sex partners who are HIV-positive and not using condoms

      How is HIV Passed From Person to Person

not using a condom during anal sex

      Barebacking Contributes to HIV Among MSM

sharing needles to inject drugs

HIV Prevention
The good news is that there are ways MSM can help stop the spread of HIV. Some of the things that can be done include:

MSM should get tested. Knowing their HIV status will protect their health and the health of others. Sexually active MSM should get tested for HIV at least once a year.

      5 Reasons to Get Tested for HIV

The only 100 percent effective method of HIV protection is sexual abstinence. However, seldom is this a realistic method for the long-term. Therefore, to decrease the risk of HIV infection, MSM should always use condoms unless they are in a long-term, mutually monogamous relationship in which both partners have been tested and are not HIV infected.

If MSM choose to have sex outside a steady relationship, they should always use a condom. These MSM should know their HIV status and that of their partner(s).

If both partners are HIV-positive, they should use condoms to prevent other sexually transmitted infections and possible infection with a different strain of HIV.

      "We Are Both Positive - Why Are Condoms Necessary?"

If MSM inject drugs, they should use clean needles and never share needles or works.

      How Can IV Drug Users Decrease Their HIV Risk?

Centers for Disease Control - "A Glance at HIV/AIDS Among Men Who Have Sex with Men"; 1 January 2006.

Perinatal Transmission of HIV

Quick Facts - Vertical Transmission
Perinatal Transmission of HIV

Here are some quick facts regarding perinatal transmission of HIV from April 2003 to March 2005.

Approximately 6,000 to 7,000 HIV-infected women give birth each year in the United States, resulting in 280 to 370 new perinatal infections.

Approximately 40% of the HIV infected women who pass their HIV to their child never knew the were HIV infected or were never tested for HIV during their pregnancy.

About 40% of women that are of child bearing age do not know that perinatal transmission of HIV is preventable.

Only about 33% of all hospitals offer rapid HIV testing to women in labor and only 50% of them have policies to test women whose HIV status is unknown.

Pregnant women are more likely to get an HIV test when testing is an option they can decline as opposed to a requirement of their prenatal care.

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; January 2005.

HIV/AIDS Quick Facts. Statistics About the HIV Epidemic

HIV/AIDS Quick Facts.
A Collect of Data & Statistics About the HIV Epidemic

This collection of quick HIV facts, data, and statistics will help you better understand the epidemic of the 20th. Century.

HIV Stats
HIV Transmission During Pregnancy
HIV/AIDS Among African Americans
HIV/AIDS Data & Statistics
HIV Among Women
HIV/AIDS Among Hispanics

HIV Prevention
Circumstances that Increase Infection Risk
The Riskiest Activities
Preventing HIV Infection
Reduce the Risk of Injecting Drugs

Living with HIV
Proper Pet Care Guide
The Family Medical Leave Act (FLMA)
Americans with Disabilities Act
How Much Do HIV Drugs Cost?

Treatment of AIDS/HIV. HIV Medication Fact Sheets

HIV Medication Fact Sheets
Easy to Use Fact Sheets

This area of our site is provided as a quick reference only. We strongly urge you to discuss medication concerns with your physician.

Important Fact! - Remember to always take medications exactly as prescribed and not to change or stop your medications without first speaking with your physician.

    * Integrase Inhibitors
      Integrase is an enzyme that does what the name implies; it integrates HIV genetic material into the DNA of human CD4 cells making it possible for the infected cell to make new copies of HIV. By interfering with integrase during the HIV life cycle, the integrase inhibitors prevent HIV genetic material from integrating into the CD4 cell, thus stopping viral replication.

          o Isentress - raltegravir

    * Entry Inhibitors
      Entry Inhibitors work by interfering with HIV's entry into the CD4 cell. By interfering during the entry phase of the HIV life cycle, entry inhibitors block HIV replication.

          o Fuzeon - enfuvirtide
          o Fuzeon Injection Instructions
          o Maraviroc - Selzentry; Celsentri - CCR5 Inhibitor

    * Non-Nucleosides Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTI's)
      Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) work by binding tightly to the enzyme reverse transcriptase which prevents viral RNA from converting to the viral DNA that infects healthy cells.

          o Intelence - etravirine - new
          o Viramune - nevaripine
          o Rescriptor - delavirdine
          o Sustiva - efavirenz

    * Nucleotide Analogs
      Like the nucleoside analogues such as Retrovir (AZT) and Videx EC (didanosine), nucleotide analogues inhibit reverse transcriptase. However, they are active in their native form, unlike nucleosides that only work in cells that have the machinery to activate the drug by a process called phosphorylation. This means that the nucleotide analogues may be active against HIV in a wider variety of infected cells.

          o Viread - tenofovir
          o Atripla - tenofovir + emtricitabine + Sustiva

    * Protease Inhibitors (PI's)
      Protease Inhibitors stop HIV replication by preventing the enzyme protease from cutting the virus into the shorter pieces that it needs to make copies of itself. Incomplete, defective copies are formed which can't infect cells.

          o Prezista - darunavir
          o Crixivan - indinavir
          o Invirase - saquinavir
          o Norvir - ritonavir
          o Viracept - nelfinavir
          o Kaletra 200/50 - lopinavir + norvir
          o Reyataz - atazanavir
          o Lexiva - fosamprenavir
          o Aptivus - tipranavir

    * Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTI's)
      Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs) work by being incorporated into the viral DNA, making it ineffective. These compounds suppress replication of retroviruses by interfering with the reverse transcriptase enzyme. The nucleoside analogs cause premature termination of the proviral (viral precursor) DNA chain.

          o Combivir - Epivir + Retrovir
          o Epivir - lamivudine
          o Zerit - stavudine
          o Hivid - zalcitabine
          o Videx EC - didanosine
          o Retrovir - AZT; zidovudine
          o Ziagen - abacavir
          o Trizivir - abacavir + epivir + retrovir
          o Emtriva - emtricitabine
          o Epzicom - lamivudine + abacavir
          o Truvada - tenofovir + emtricitabine

    * Combination Medications
      In an effort to improve medication adherence and to make it easier to take your medications each day, many medications are combined into one pill or capsule. Fewer pills each day has been shown to improve adherence which we know improves the effectiveness of HIV regimens.

          o Atripla - tenofovir + emtricitabine + efavirenz
          o Kaletra - lopinavir + norvir
          o Combivir - lamivudine + zidovudine
          o Trizivir - abacavir + lamivudine + zidovudine
          o Epzicom - lamivudine + abacavir
          o Truvada - tenofovir + emtricitabine

    * Miscellaneous HIV Medications
      New drugs and old that don't fit any of the above categories.

          o Hydrea - Hydroxyurea - Inhibits HIV reproduction by inhibiting cellular factors that HIV needs in order to reproduce.

Diagnosis of AIDS/HIV. How is HIV/AIDS Diagnosed?

How is HIV/AIDS Diagnosed?
Don't Rely on Symptoms to Decide if You Have HIV/AIDS

The importance of early diagnosis of HIV can't be overstated. Two-plus decades of HIV and AIDS research has proven that the earlier HIV is diagnosed, the better the prognosis and the likelihood of a long, healthy life. So how are HIV and AIDS diagnosed?

Diagnosing HIV
Diagnosing HIV can be done using blood, saliva, or by using cells from the inside of the cheek. Because HIV carries such stigma and prejudices, great care is taken to protect the identity of those being tested. This is done in two ways:

    * Confidential for a Fee - Your name will be linked to the test but the test results are kept confidential. Usually there is a fee assessed for these tests but most insurance plans will cover the charge. These tests are usually used by hospitals, labs, and doctor's offices.

    * Anonymous and Free - Tests can also be anonymous, meaning your name is not linked to the test at all. A random identifier using numbers, letters, or any fake name of your choice is used instead of your real name. The results are confidential, but even if someone gets the results by mistake, they would be unable to link you to the result. These tests are usually free and offered in community HIV agencies or health departments.

For more information on HIV testing:

    * All You Need to Know About HIV Tests
    * How Do You Know You Need an HIV Test?
    * 5 Great Reasons to Be Tested for HIV
    * Should We All Be HIV Tested?
    * What is a Rapid HIV Test?
    * Beware - Not All HIV Tests are the Same

Diagnosing AIDS

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, or AIDS, is a condition that describes an advanced state of HIV infection. With AIDS, the virus has progressed, causing significant loss of CD4 cells, weakening the immune system to such an extent that the body is at risk for those illnesses and infections said to be "AIDS-defining." Those illnesses and infections are said to be AIDS-defining because they mark the onset of AIDS. A person is also diagnosed with AIDS when their CD4 count falls below 200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood, the level at which the immune system can no longer protect a person from the AIDS-defining illnesses and infections.

    * What Are the AIDS-Defining Illnesses?
    * What is My CD4 Count and Why is it Important?
    * What Exactly is a CD4 Cell?

Symptoms of AIDS/HIV. HIV Symptoms, What Are They?

Symptoms of AIDS/HIV.
HIV Symptoms, What Are They?

What are HIV symptoms? What are the symptoms of HIV? This is the question I get more than any other. But because many people who have been infected with HIV have few or no HIV symptoms, HIV testing is the only way to know for sure if you are infected. There are, however, an assortment of HIV symptoms that can be associated with a new HIV infection.

Symptoms Early After Infection - Acute HIV - In emergency departments and family practice offices, people come in with symptoms like fever, headache, muscle and joint pain, sore throat, rash and diarrhea. In response to these symptoms, physicians diagnose the flu and send the patient on their way. In the majority of cases, their diagnosis proves correct. But unfortunately, a number of people with these vague, indistinct symptoms have a more serious illness than the flu; these symptoms may signal the acute stages of HIV infection.

Acute HIV - Recognize the Symptoms

Symptoms of the Immune System - The immune system is the body's natural defense against invading foreign agents such as viruses and bacteria. HIV attacks the immune system, weakening it and making the body more susceptible to infection. After infection, some symptoms affect the immune system.

Swollen lymph nodes in the neck, axilla, or groin (lymphadenopathy)
Fever / night sweats

Symptoms of the GI Tract - HIV can have a profound affect on the gastrointestinal system and nutrition. Like any virus, HIV can cause symptoms ranging from poor appetite to diarrhea. Here are some of the most common:

Rapid weight loss
Poor appetite
Profound fatigue

Respiratory Symptoms - Some of the most serious symptoms of HIV involve the respiratory system. Symptoms associated with breathing and respiration usually occur later in course of the disease. Unfortunately, many people's first symptom of HIV involves the respiratory system, illustrating why HIV testing is so important. Any cough or shortness of breath could be a sign of bacterial pneumonia or pneumocystis (carinii) jiroveci pneumonia (PCP).

Shortness of breath
Dry cough / productive cough

Symptoms of the Skin and Mucous Membranes - Many of the symptoms of HIV are a result of infection by other viruses, fungi or bacteria. Often, these infections involve the skin or mucous membranes (for example, inside the mouth).

HIV Effects on Dental Health
Skin rash
Red, brown, pink or purple lesion on the skin - suggestive of Kaposi's sarcoma
White patches on the tounge, inside of the mouth, or gums - could be signs of thrush, candida, or hairy oral leukoplakia
Canker sores / apthous ulcers

Neurological / Emotional Symptoms - Very early on in the epidemic, experts realized that HIV affected both the physical and emotional self. Neurological and emotional symptoms of HIV can include the following.

Numbness, tingling, or burning in the feet, hands, or face. (peripheral neuropathy)
Confusion, weakness, or changes in level of conciousness

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What is AIDS/HIV? What is HIV and How Does it Relate to AIDS?

What is AIDS/HIV?
What is HIV and How Does it Relate to AIDS?

What is HIV?
To answer the question what is HIV AIDS, we have to start early in the epidemic. In 1985, scientists discovered the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and with it the question what is aids was answered. HIV is a virus that is transmitted from person to person through the exchange of body fluids such as blood, semen, breast milk and vaginal secretions. Sexual contact is the most common way to spread HIV AIDS, but it can also be transmitted by sharing needles when injecting drugs, or during childbirth and breastfeeding. As HIV AIDS reproduces, it damages the body's immune system and the body becomes susceptible to illness and infection. There is no known cure for HIV infection.

* HIV 101 - The Basics
* The Biology of HIV - How Does HIV Work
* Understand the Immune System
* Understand the Immune Response to Understand HIV
* How Does Your Immune System Work...A Free Online Course
* What is a T-cell / CD4 Cell?
* What is Your HIV Viral Load?
* What is CD4 Percentage?

What is AIDS?
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a condition that describes an advanced state of HIV infection. With AIDS, the virus has progressed, causing significant loss of white blood cells (CD4 cells) or any of the cancers or infections that result from immune system damage. Those illnesses and infections are said to be "AIDS-defining" because they mark the onset of AIDS. Like HIV, there is no known cure for AIDS.

* What Are the AIDS-Defining Illnesses and Infections?
* Are HIV and AIDS the Same Thing?
* Explore the HIV and AIDS Connection
* How Long Does it Take for HIV to Cause AIDS?

HIV/AIDS - More Than Just a Disease
Soon after the emergence of the AIDS epidemic, it became evident that HIV was much more than just a disease. Unlike any other disease, HIV not only touches the lives of those infected, but it also impacts the lives of virtually everyone on earth. One would be hard pressed to find any group not affected by the HIV epidemic in some way. Simply put, it is clearly one of the most important public health issues.

* The History of HIV - The HIV Timeline
* The Great Minds of HIV
* HIV Around the World - The Impact of HIV on the World's Population
* The Impact of HIV on other Diseases
* HIV/AIDS Among African Americans
* The Epidemic Rages On - HIV in Africa
* HIV/AIDS Stats - Get a Picture of the Effects of HIV/AIDS
* Telling Your Kids You Have HIV
* Sero-sorting - Finding Someone For You
* Talking to Your Kids About HIV